Caribbean Research Paper


The Caribbean is renowned globally for its stunning beaches and crystal clear ocean. However, its islands and the surrounding sea are being contaminated by plastics, posing a potential future threat to its diverse marine life and the tourism industry on which its economy depends.

To date, little work has quantified plastics within the Caribbean marine environment or examined their potential sources. We aimed to address this during eXXpedition Round the World (RTW) by conducting the first holistic assessment of marine and land-based plastic pollution in the Southern Caribbean, alongside scientists at the University of Plymouth in conjunction with the University of Georgia, Plymouth Marine Laboratory and the Technological University of Panama.

The full study – Source, Sea and Sink – a holistic approach to understanding plastic pollution in the Southern Caribbean is published in Science of the Total Environment (November 2021)

Download Our Summary

Data Collection


In November and December 2019 our fantastic all-women crew sailed from Antigua to Panama via Bonaire, Aruba and the San Blas Islands. To study the distribution of microplastics within the Caribbean holistically, we collected samples from surface water, subsurface water and sediment to examine the abundance and distribution of microplastics in each part of the marine environment, and conducted a number of land-based surveys. Computer simulations were also used to predict where plastics collected in the samples may have come from.



Off the coast of five Caribbean countries, we identified 18 different types of plastic – including synthetic fibres, paint flakes and acrylics. 

The highest concentrations of microplastics were located off the San Blas islands in Panama. 

By contrast, Antigua had among the lowest quantities of terrestrial and marine plastics, yet the greatest diversity

Tobacco products, plastic fragments and food packaging were consistently the top three categories of litter recorded in land-based surveys in every country. 

Very few plastic bags or polystyrene foams were found as litter in countries which had a ban on these items (Antigua, Aruba). However polystyrene foam was identified within surface water samples.



We set out on eXXpedition Round the World to pinpoint where the solutions to plastic pollution lie on land by better understanding the sources.

Paint flakes identified across marine samples from the Caribbean may arise from the maritime and tourism industries, highlighting the complex challenges of managing plastic pollution since both are major contributors to the economies of the Caribbean region.

The high concentrations of microplastics located off the San Blas islands in Panama likely arose from a combination of distant sources, carried by ocean currents, and run-off from mainland Panama, which has some of the highest levels (around 44%) of mismanaged waste in the region. 

The Antiguan samples had a high diversity of polymer types and computer modelling suggests these plastics may have been transported by currents generated in the wider North Atlantic Ocean, even originating from the so-called North Atlantic garbage patch.

The importance of understanding the transboundary movement of marine litter in the Caribbean, due to the prevailing ocean currents, can not be understated. Such movement can undermine local or national legislation aimed at reducing plastic pollution.


“Our vision for eXXpedition Round the World was to explore remote and inaccessible parts of the planet to pinpoint where the solutions to plastic pollution lie on land by better understanding the sources. The striking discovery was the huge diversity of polymer types which means the pollution has come from many different sources and as a result means the solutions need to be diverse too. We all share one planet and wherever we live the ocean connects us. This study demonstrates why for any game-changing action to tackle ocean plastic pollution cross-border collaboration from all sectors of society is needed in a holistic way across the Caribbean region and beyond.”

– Emily Penn BEM, eXXpedition Co-founder



Until now, evidence of the abundance of plastics within the Caribbean has been lacking. This study presents a snapshot of plastic pollution, and how it differs – in quantity, nature, origin and the policies in place to manage it. The holistic approach of this research and consequent results, highlights the importance and need for more integrated and interdisciplinary studies to better understand and inform on the most effective solutions to the multifaceted issue of plastic pollution.

Just as the types and sources of plastic pollution are many, so too must be the solutions. There’s no silver bullet solution, there’s not one thing, but there are hundreds of different ways to solve it. As well as more holistic research, what’s needed is a multidisciplinary approach to solution finding, which is the same approach we took to collecting the data for this study by involving multidisciplinary women from diverse professional backgrounds, not typically scientists, who made up the eXXpedition crew in the Caribbean.

Great thanks are extended to all the study authors, scientific partners, the vessel crew, shore team and guest crew on voyage legs 3-5 of eXXpedition Round the World. Thanks also to the Science Advisory Board and all sponsors who enabled this research, especially Travel Edge, TOMRA, SAP, Red Ensign Group, 11th Hour Racing and Slaughter and May.

Press Release: First Holistic Assessment of Plastic Pollution in the Caribbean 

eXXpedition Round the World Caribbean Research Discussion 

Presenting the Caribbean research paper

Annual conference on the development of scientific instruments 2022

At the invitation of one of our RTW science partners PerkinElmer, Dr. Winnie Courtene-Jones – Science Lead for eXXpedition Round the World – was invited to present the findings from our Caribbean research paper at ACCSI 2022 in Beijing, China, earlier this year.

She provided a virtual presentation to one of the largest scientific instrumentation gatherings in China. It is attended by academic, industrial, and governmental scientists and officials. The video below is a recording of the presentation given.


7th International Marine Debris Conference, Busan 2022

eXXpedition Ambassador, Taylor Maddalene was invited to present the findings from our Caribbean research paper at the 7th IMDC in Busan this September.

Taylor is a PhD Student in Environmental Engineering. She is also the Director of the Circularity Assessment Protocol with the Jambeck Research Group at the University of Georgia. Taylor joined us for the 2nd leg of our Virtual Voyages to Fiji. 

Held every four years, the IMDC will see her Taylor present to a diverse range of stakeholders about the findings from our CAP in the Caribbean.  Attended by academic, industrial, and governmental officials from around the world, it is great to see our Ambassadors continuing to make an impact back on land, and our research being presented on such an international stage.